International Journal of Health and Pharmaceutical (IJHP) <p><strong>International Journal of Health and Pharmaceutical (IJHP) e- ISSN : 2808-845X</strong> is a communication media and scientific publication in the health and pharmaceutical fields published by <em><strong>Inara Publisher</strong></em>.</p> <p><strong>International Journal of Health and Pharmaceutical (IJHP)</strong> contains articles from research focusing on basic medicine, clinical medicine, epidemiology, preventive medicine (social medicine), pharmacy, and other medical fields.</p> <p><strong>International Journal of Health and Pharmaceutical (IJHP)</strong> is published periodically four times a year <strong>(February, May and </strong><strong>August and November</strong><strong>)</strong>.</p> CV. Inara en-US International Journal of Health and Pharmaceutical (IJHP) 2808-845X The Influence Of Booklet On The Success Of Toilet Training In Children Aged 2-3 Years At Ra Bintang Zhafira Tulang Bawang Regency <p><em>Background: According to the Child Development Institute Toilet training, it is reported that 10 -20% of children aged 5 years, 5% of children aged 10 years, almost 2% of children aged 12-14 years, and 1% of children aged 18 years still wet the bed. Toilet training is an effort to train children to be able to control defecation (BAB) and urination (BAK) in their place (toilet). Education is one way to increase mothers' or parents' intellectual knowledge about toilet training. Education or health education can be provided using various methods and media, including: lectures, discussions, giving leaflets, booklets or direct practice related to the mother's needs. A booklet is a small book that contains writing, pictures or both. Research objective: to determine the effect of booklets on the success of toilet training in children aged 2-3 years at RA Bintang Zhafira, Tulang Bawang Regency. Research method: This research uses quantitative with a Quasy Experiment design with a one group pretest and posttest design. The population in this study was 32 mothers who had children aged 2-3 years and the sample taken was 32 respondents. The research was carried out at RA Bintang Zhafira, Tulang Bawang Regency in December 2023-January 2024. Data analysis was carried out univariate and bivariate (t test). Research results: it is known that the average success of toilet training before intervention was given to children aged 2-3 years was 8.0 and after intervention was given to children aged 2-3 years was 12.1. There is an influence of the booklet on the success of toilet training in children aged 2-3 years at RA Bintang Zhafira, Tulang Bawang Regency with p-value = 0.000 or p ≤ α (0.05). Conclusions and Suggestions: There is an influence of the booklet on the success of toilet training in children aged 2-3 years at RA Bintang Zhafira, Tulang Bawang Regency and suggestions for RA Bintang can provide health education to mothers who have toddler age children regarding the implementation of toilet training.</em></p> Ranti Wulandari M Sonda Nur Assyaidah Copyright (c) 2024 Ranti Wulandari M, Sonda Nur Assyaidah 2024-02-20 2024-02-20 4 3 440 448 10.51601/ijhp.v4i2.327 The Effect of Swimming Aerobic Physical Exercise On White Rats (Rattus Novergicus) Of the Wistar Strain That Are Obese <p><em>Women are more likely to be obese and at risk of hypertension and coronary heart disease than men. Genetic factors influence it. Physical exercise can reduce obesity, especially on endothelial factors such as ET-1 and NO. This research explores the effect of swimming physical training on the expression of endothelin-1 and receptor-A in obese mouse models. This type of research is a true experiment carried out on 12 adult female Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus) as research samples. The research procedures were carried out by caring for test animals, raising rats until they were obese, not giving treatment (control), physical training in the form of swimming exercises, and finally, examination of ET-1, ET-A, blood sugar levels, and total cholesterol levels. The data obtained was analyzed using SPSS. The research results of the normality test for the treatment group were more significant than 0.05 in the ET-1 examination of 0.315 and ET-A of 0.261. ET-1 levels were 92.5 pg/ml and ET-A levels were 62.5 pg/ml. Their blood sugar level was 167 mg/dL. The research concluded that in mouse tests, physical training was better for increasing ET-1 levels and reducing ET-A levels. Swimming</em><em> and aerobics are</em><em> better at lowering blood sugar levels.</em></p> Vita Altamira Evelyn Angie Sidharta Kunardi Copyright (c) 2024 Vita Altamira, Evelyn Angie, Sidharta Kunardi 2024-02-20 2024-02-20 4 3 449 456 10.51601/ijhp.v4i2.321 Comparison Of Buerger Allen Exercise With 3 Physical Therapy Modalities On The Value Of Ankle Brachial Index In Patients With Type Ii Diabetes Mellitus <p><em>Hyperglycemia is one of the problems of people with Diabetes Mellitus, poorly controlled hyperglycemia conditions can cause complications, one of which is impaired peripheral vascular flow which can cause diabetic wounds. Vascularization disorders can be prevented by Buerger Allen Exercise therapy and 3 Physical Therapy Modalities to increase Ankle Brachial Index (ABI) values. The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of Buerger Allen Exercise and 3 Physical Therapy Modalities on ABI values in people with type II Diabetes Mellitus. The design of this study was Quasi Experiment Pre and post test two groups with 15 respondents of group A given Buerger Allen Exercise intervention and 15 respondents of group B given 3 Physical Therapy Modalities intervention. The results showed that there was an increase in ABI values after intervention in both groups with the difference in the Buerger Allen Exercise group increase of 0.050 while the Modaliatas Physical Therapy group amounted to 0.113. In conclusion, there was an increase in ABI values in both groups after the intervention but group 3 Modaliatas Physical Therapy had a higher increase. Intervention 3 Modaliatas Physical Therapy can be recommended as one of the alternative therapies as a prevention of complications of peripheral arterial disease.</em></p> Ikhsan Ibrahim Nur Aisyah Suaib Suaib Ikhsan Ibrahim Copyright (c) 2024 Ikhsan Ibrahim, Nur Aisyah, Suaib Suaib 2024-02-20 2024-02-20 4 3 457 464 10.51601/ijhp.v4i2.329 Administration of Eucalyptus to Inhibit the Skin Aging Process of Rats (Rattus Norvegicus) Wistar Strains Exposed to Ultraviolet-B Light <p><em>Ageing weakens the skin's protective layer, causing pigmentation, inflammation, and cancer. Environmental hazards like pollution and UV radiation harm the skin. Antioxidants, like Eucalyptus globulus, protect against free radicals, making them valuable in medicinal use.</em> <em>The study aimed to investigate the efficacy of Eucalyptus administration in inhibiting skin ageing in rats exposed to ultraviolet-B light. A true experiment was conducted to examine the effectiveness of Eucalyptus in reducing skin ageing in Wistar rats exposed to ultraviolet-B radiation. The study used the "3R Principle" and SPSS to analyse the relationship between collagen quantity, Eucalyptus, and UVB radiation.</em> <em>The study found normal distribution for the control and treatment groups, with a significance of 0.200 and 0.091, respectively. The Levene test showed homogeneity and a T-test result 0.000, indicating a significant difference. The control group had a moderate collagen density, while the treatment group with Eucalyptus extract had a tighter collagen density.</em> <em>The study concludes that the Eucalyptus tree extracts, including tannins, saponins, and flavonoids, have been found to have anti-ageing and collagen-increasing effects in mice exposed to UVB light. The treatment group showed significantly increased collagen density, indicating potential anti-ageing properties in the treatment group.</em></p> Asira Mahrahmi Tan Suyono Ali Napiah Nasution Copyright (c) 2024 Asira Mahrahmi, Tan Suyono, Ali Napiah Nasution 2024-06-04 2024-06-04 4 3 465 471 10.51601/ijhp.v4i2.340 The Relationship Between Covid-19 Vaccination And The Incidence Of Covid-19 At The Hospital Putri Hijau Hospital, Medan <p><em>Vaccination is the process of entering vaccines to stimulate the body's immune system, as a preventive effort in reducing morbidity and mortality caused by the coronavirus. Putri Hijau Hospital in Medan City, which participated in the second dose of Covid-19 vaccination, confirmed that the respondents who were still affected by Covid-19 needed to be developed, so in particular knowing the number of cases of Covid-19 that appeared in respondents who had been infected. received a second dose of vaccination. The purpose of this study was to see whether there was a relationship between vaccination and the incidence of Covid-19 at Putri Hijau Hospital in Medan.This type of research uses a quantitative approach method by using a questionnaire distributed through the Google Form platform on a smartphone to store all the answers that have been filled in by the respondent based on the questionnaire guidelines that have been made previously with the target of respondents who have vaccinated the second dose of Covid-19.The results showed that from 100 respondents there were 28 male patients (28%) and 72 female patients (72%). Judging from the age of most patients at the age of 15 to 25 years. There were 8 people and 92 people who were not exposed. With the symptoms of Covid-19, such as fever, cough, sore throat, and loss of sense of smell. This is because the respondents had antibodies that were formed slightly after vaccination, were active outside the home, did not apply health protocols and maintained their immune system so that they were exposed to Covid-19.</em></p> Eva Sartika Dasopang Desy Natalia Siahaan Fenny Hasanah Salma Handayani Lubis Yohana Yuni M Ramona Pane Copyright (c) 2024 Eva Sartika Dasopang, Desy Natalia Siahaan , Fenny Hasanah, Salma Handayani Lubis , Yohana Yuni M , Ramona Pane 2024-06-04 2024-06-04 4 3 472 479 10.51601/ijhp.v4i2.338 Analysis Of Factors Related To The Cause Of Drug Withdrawal In Patients With Type Ii Diabetes Mellitus At Tk Ii Putri Hijau Kesdam 1/Bb Medan Hospital In 2020 <p><em>Diabetes Mellitus is a disease that cannot be cured and can only be controlled by taking medication regularly. Diabetes must be treated quickly and appropriately to get a cure. Taking drugs continuously can cause a person to start to feel bored to take drugs, causing a person to stop taking drugs. The purpose of this study was to provide information on the causes of drug withdrawal of patients with type II diabetes mellitus in the outpatient installation of Putri Hijau Medan Hospital. This research is descriptive using qualitative methods. The research was conducted at TK II PUTRI HIJAU Hospital KESDAM 1 / BB Medan for three months from March to May 2021. This study took samples in a presumptive way, namely by using the Non Random Sampling Technique with the accidental sampling technique method by collecting data through observation and interviews then the data was processed in thematic form. The results of the interview research obtained were 3 out of 5 respondents experienced drug withdrawal which was predominantly male (40%). the age of the late elderly (56-65 years) as much as (40%). The majority of occupations are self-employed (60%). And have suffered from diabetes from 6-10 years (60%). The fact of drug discontinuation is due to advanced age, occupation, and compliance with taking medication. The gender factor is very influential in the occurrence of diseases, especially DM, the female sex is more susceptible to Diabetes Mellitus because women have premenstrual syndrome after menapouse, but the results of the research obtained are predominantly male. Meanwhile, 2 female-dominant respondents did not drop out of medication but were less compliant in taking medication.</em></p> Eva Sartika Dasopang Salmah Handayani Lubis Fenny Hasanah Nadia Nuzulia Annisa Almunadia Copyright (c) 2024 Eva Sartika Dasopang, Salmah Handayani Lubis , Fenny Hasanah , Nadia Nuzulia , Annisa Almunadia 2024-06-04 2024-06-04 4 3 480 483 10.51601/ijhp.v4i3.345 Effect of Celery (Apium graveolens L.) Extract Administration on Kidney Function of White Rats (Rattus norvegicus) Wistar Strains Exposed to Lead <p>Lead significantly affects health because of its sensitivity to the central nervous system and rapid absorption rate. The phytochemicals included in celery, such as flavonoids, may mitigate lead-induced kidney damage. This research aimed to determine how administering celery extract affected the expression of the Caspase-3 gene and the kidney TNF-α gene in <em>Rattus Norvegicus</em> Wistar white rats exposed to lead. The research method true experiment examined the effects of 80 mg/day celery extract on Caspase-3 gene expression and renal TNF-α gene expression in rats exposed to lead. Each of the three groups will include six rats; there will be eighteen male Wistar rats in the study. The study used SPSS 26.0 and the Saphiro Wills test to analyze data on TNF-α and Caspase 3 expression in rats exposed to lead acetate (Pb). The results showed a normal distribution for the negative control group (K-) and the positive control group (K+) and a normal distribution for the treatment group (P). However, the paired t-test showed significant differences in all treatment groups (p &lt;0.05), indicating a normal distribution in the data. The study concludes the impact of celery extract on kidney function in lead-exposed Wistar rats, revealing various active compounds like flavonoids. Despite insignificant caspase 3 reduction, flavonoids showed potential in mitigating lead-induced kidney damage.</p> Shella Selviana Barus Ali Napiah Nasution Wienaldi Wienaldi Copyright (c) 2024 Shella Selviana Barus, Ali Napiah Nasution, Wienaldi Wienaldi 2024-06-04 2024-06-04 4 3 484 490 10.51601/ijhp.v4i3.339 The Usage Of Government Formulary For BPJS Inpatients With Ischemic Stroke In Indonesia <p><strong><em>Introduction:</em></strong><em> Ischemic stroke patients tend to use some medicine. In National Health Security (JKN), the government has created a government formulary as quality control and cost control. The study aims to determine the percentage of government formulary in Hospitals and the affected factors. <strong>Method:</strong> It was cross sectional quantitative research. It used retrospective data from medical record and prescription of ischemic stroke inpatients from January to June 2019. The data collected include hospital characteristics, patient characteristics, supporting characteristics and treatment costs<strong>. Result:</strong> The data cames from 17 hospitals. Based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 257 medical records were analyzed. The average percentage of drug use was 73.22%. Its was influenced by the hospital class, the number of supporting examinations, the number of drug items. Type B and C hospitals used non government formulary. There were citicolin, mecobalamin, piracetam, neurotropic multivitamin, flunarizine. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> The average percentage of drug use was still less than 100%. There were still non government formulary drugs used for the therapy of inpatient ischemic stroke. The use of non government formulary drugs was influenced by the hospital class, the number of supporting examinations, the number of drug items. </em></p> Lukman Prayitno Novita Novita Sonya Esther Erlina Puspitaloka Mahadewi Copyright (c) 2024 Lukman Prayitno, Novita Novita, Sonya Esther, Erlina Puspitaloka Mahadewi 2024-06-04 2024-06-04 4 3 491 498 10.51601/ijhp.v4i3.347 Anti-Inflammatory Effect Of Carica Papaya Leaves Extract In Male Wistar Rats Based On Variation Of Concentration <p>Treatment of inflammation is currently dominated by using synthetic drugs, which if used in cases of chronic inflammation such as hyperuricemia and rheumatoid arthritis will carry the risk of increasing side effects for the user. Papaya leaves as a potential herb in some communities are also used as a treatment for inflammatory conditions. The aim of this research was to determine the anti-inflammatory effect of papaya leaf extract in vivo based on variations in concentration in Wistar white rats. This research is an in vivo study using 25 male Wistar Rats and divided into 5 groups. Group I was given as a negative control (P0), the group used Diclofenac Sodium as a positive control (P1), the Carica papaya leaf extract test group with varying concentrations of 40% (P2), 50% (P3), and 60% concentration (P4). Carrageenan 1% is used as an inflammation inducer. The inflammation observation parameter in this study was the volume of edema in the rats' feet at 30 minute intervals for 180 minutes. The average percentage reduction in edema during 180 minutes of observation in the P2, P3 and P4 extract test groups was 81.00%, 78.33% and 81.00%, respectively. The positive control group (P1) showed a reduction of 81.66%, while the negative control was only 26%. The results of statistical tests show that there is an effect of giving the extract on reducing edema in mice compared to the negative control group. From these results it can be concluded that the ethanol extract of Carica papaya leaves with concentrations of 40%, 50% and 60% showed an anti-inflammatory effect on male Wistar rats.</p> Vonna Aulianshah Yelda Ratu Thaharah Noni Zakiah Rini Handayani Copyright (c) 2024 Vonna Aulianshah, Yelda Ratu Thaharah, Noni Zakiah, Rini Handayani 2024-07-10 2024-07-10 4 3 503 507 10.51601/ijhp.v4i3.279