International Journal of Health and Pharmaceutical (IJHP) https://ijhp.net/index.php/IJHP <p><strong>International Journal of Health and Pharmaceutical (IJHP) e- ISSN : 2808-845X</strong> is a communication media and scientific publication in the health and pharmaceutical fields published by <em><strong>Inara Publisher</strong></em>.</p> <p><strong>International Journal of Health and Pharmaceutical (IJHP)</strong> contains articles from research focusing on basic medicine, clinical medicine, epidemiology, preventive medicine (social medicine), pharmacy, and other medical fields.</p> <p><strong>International Journal of Health and Pharmaceutical (IJHP)</strong> is published periodically four times a year <strong>(February, May and </strong><strong>August and November</strong><strong>)</strong>.</p> CV. Inara en-US International Journal of Health and Pharmaceutical (IJHP) 2808-845X “Operating Room Effectiveness”: Phenomenological Qualitative Study In Hospital https://ijhp.net/index.php/IJHP/article/view/160 <p><em>This study investigates the experience of health and medical personnel in hospital operating rooms and to evaluate the effectiveness of activities in operating rooms and ventilation conditions in hospitals. This study was designed as a qualitative research based on Heidegger's Hermeneutic Phenomenology Approach. The research method was carried out on health and medical personnel working in the operating room (OR) as observers. The research data were collected using an open and unstructured interview form. This form includes items that question the operating room design and operating room ventilation conditions. Data analysis used the Miles &amp; Huberman method with the stages of data reduction, data display, and conclusion or verification. The research findings were obtained from seven informants (health and medical personnel) consisting of three men and four women. Age ranged from 30 to 45 years. Two themes and twelve sub-themes were determined as a result of data analysis. The research themes are (1) the effectiveness of operating room layout and (2) the effectiveness of operating room ventilation. This study concludes and provides important information about the physical requirements of the hospital operating room and the effectiveness for working professionally experience workers in the operating room (OR). It is understood that the room layout in the hospital is very good in helping smooth preoperative and postoperative handling. And operating room ventilation already supports good air circulation and is easy to control its use. But still found another room that causes noise. Hospital management must consider the type of activity, use of equipment, and/or other sources of noise, whether in the operating room building, ventilation of the operating room without a positive pressure system. So, the hospital must be able to pay attention to air humidity and pay attention to the state of the ventilation system and air filtration in the operating room so as to reduce the risk of preoperative and postoperative wound infections.</em></p> Teguh Tirto Katon Sri Wahyuni Nasution Tri Suci Copyright (c) 2022 Teguh Tirto Katon, Sri Wahyuni Nasution, Tri Suci https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-11-22 2022-11-22 3 3 269 280 10.51601/ijhp.v3i3.160 Test the Potential of Macadamia Nut Oil (Macadamia F. Muell) As Sunscreen in Cream Preparations In Vitro https://ijhp.net/index.php/IJHP/article/view/167 <p><em>Background:&nbsp; Sunlight has a beneficial effect by activating provitamin D3 found in the epidermis of the skin to become vitamin D3. However, excessive sun exposure can also have detrimental effects, especially on the skin. Macadamia nut oil contains vitamin E (tocotrienols and tocopherols) which are natural antioxidants. Macadamia nut oil also contains linoleic acid which is great for softening the skin, regenerating skin cells, moisturizing the skin, and is a natural anti-inflammatory. and helps restore skin barrier function and reduce transepidermal water loss (TEWL). Objectives: To determine whether there is a sunscreen potential from macadamia nut oil, the difference in the SPF value is significant between cream preparations with the addition of macadamia nut oil in various concentrations and to determine the sunscreen category of each macadamia nut oil formulation. Methods: This research was carried out experimentally, including the preparation of macadamia nut oil lotion, pH test, irritation test, and in vitro determination of the SPF (sun protection factor) number using a UV-Vis spectrophotometer. Results: The addition of macadamia nut oil combined with oxybenzone and octylmetoxycinamate in cream preparations has an average SPF value of F1 (blank) of 9.97; F2 (blank + 2% oxybenzone + 5% octyl methoxycinamate) of 23.14; F3 (1% macadamia nut oil) of 29.39; F4 (5% macadamia nut oil) of 32.99; and F5 (10% macadamia nut oil) of 37.59. The addition of macadamia nut oil in various concentrations gave a significant difference in increasing the SPF value between each formula combined with oxybenzone and octylmetoxycinamate. Conclusion: The addition of macadamia nut oil can increase the effectiveness of the combination oxybenzone and octylmetoxycinamate sunscreen in cream preparations.</em></p> Yessy Ulandari Natasia Sri Wahyuni Nasution Tri Suci Copyright (c) 2022 Yessy Ulandari Natasia, Sri Wahyuni Nasution, Tri Suci https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-11-22 2022-11-22 3 3 281 293 10.51601/ijhp.v3i3.167 Cost-Based Evaluation of INA – CBG's Rates in Patients with Type II Diabetes Mellitus Inpatient at Royal Prima Public Hospital Medan https://ijhp.net/index.php/IJHP/article/view/155 <p><em>RSU Royal Prima Medan applies the Indonesian Case Based Groups (INA-CBGs) system as a payment system for health services for JKN-BPJS patients. This study describes the implementation of the INA-CBGs system in inpatients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. This research is descriptive research with a qualitative approach. The population of this study are people who play a role in calculating BPJS financing at RSU Royal Prima Medan. The sample used in this study amounted to 4 informants consisting of 1 informant in the BPJS patient register section, 1 Head informant in the BPJS financing calculation section, and 2 staff informants in the BPJS financing calculation section. Data analysis using the Triagulation method. The results showed that the majority of Type II DM patients at RSU Royal Prima Medan were &gt; 50 years old, as many as 29 patients with a percentage of 85.3%, and 15 patients for male and 19 female patients. The implementation of the INA – CBG's system at RSU Royal Prima Medan for inpatients with Type II DM is in accordance with the procedure, the obstacles faced by officers such as when entering data where there are still many writings from doctors that are difficult to understand, the tariff for INA – CBG's packages for Type II DM patients Hospitalization at RSU Royal Prima Medan is adjusted to the patient's condition and to assess the success of implementing the INA – CBG's system at RSU Royal Prima Medan for inpatients with Type II DM as seen from the hospital's income where during the implementation of the INA-CBGs system the hospital did not experience losses, even hospital revenue exceeds the target to be achieved.</em></p> Febri Sri Astuti Marpaung Ermi Girsang Yolanda Eliza Putri Lubis Copyright (c) 2022 Febri Sri Astuti Marpaung, Ermi Girsang , Yolanda Eliza Putri Lubis https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-11-22 2022-11-22 3 3 294 303 10.51601/ijhp.v3i3.155 Effectiveness Of Sidaguri Extract (Sida Rhombifolia) On Postpartum Perineum Wound Healing https://ijhp.net/index.php/IJHP/article/view/163 <p>Perineal trauma which is a common complication that occurs after childbirth is in 55%-85% <br />of vaginal births. Infection in the postpartum period if not treated properly will be a <br />complication of 1% - 4%. So it is very important in providing care for perineal tears in <br />postpartum mothers, the purpose of this study was to see the Effectiveness of Sidaguri Extract <br />(Sida Rhombifolia) Against Perineal Wound Healing in Postpartum. The research method <br />used a True Experimental design with a Control Group. This research was carried out at the <br />UPTD Puskesmas Watampone Kab. Bone. The sample of this study was postpartum mothers <br />who came to visit and received postpartum services from June 29 - August 29, sampling using <br />an accidental sampling technique obtained 24 samples, and data analysis using the MannWhitney U test. The results of the application of Sida Rhombifolia extract on postpartum <br />maternal perineal wounds showed a significant p-value (0.00) which means that Sida <br />Rhombifolia extract was able to accelerate the healing of perineal tears. So Sida Rhombifolia <br />extract can be an alternative in providing care, prevention, and accelerating the healing of <br />perineal tears in postpartum mothers.</p> Kasmiati Kasmiati Dia Rianti Fardiansyah Fardiansyah Copyright (c) 2022 Kasmiati Kasmiati, Dia Rianti, Fardiansyah Fardiansyah https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-11-22 2022-11-22 3 3 304 310 10.51601/ijhp.v3i3.163 Activity Test of Squid Ink (Loligo Sp.) As Antibacterial Against Enterococcus Faecalis and Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Bacteria https://ijhp.net/index.php/IJHP/article/view/168 <p>Squid (Loligo sp.) is an invertebrate animal, part of the cephalopod class. The <br />squid has a distinctive black ink fluid for self-defense. Squid ink contains melanin <br />compounds that can be used as an antibacterial. Enterococcus faecalis is a <br />bacterium that causes endodontic infection. While Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a <br />bacterium that causes infection in patients with compromised immune system, and <br />also who using a urinary catheter or intravenous catheter. This study aims to <br />determine whether squid ink can be used as an antibacterial that can suppress the <br />growth of Enterococcus faecalis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria. This <br />research was conducted with experimental method, true experimental Post-Test <br />Only Control Group research design. The research by using squid ink was <br />carried out by inserting extract with various concentration (20%, 40%, 60%, 80% <br />and 100%) into a petri dish which containing bacterial culture. The final showed <br />that between concentrations of 20%, 40%, 60%, 80% and 100% were no clear <br />zones, which had been repeated 3 times against Enterococcus faecalis and <br />Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria. From the results obtained, it can be <br />concluded that there is no bacterial inhibition caused by squid ink against <br />Enterococcus faecalis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.</p> Valencia Angelina Halim Sara Rai Faomasi Duha OK Yulizal Irza Haicha Pratama Copyright (c) 2022 Valencia Angelina Halim, Sara Rai Faomasi Duha, OK Yulizal, Irza Haicha Pratama https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-11-22 2022-11-22 3 3 311 317 10.51601/ijhp.v3i3.168 The Effect Of Acute Jamu Kunyit Asam After Strenuous Physical Exercise On Creatine Kinase Levels https://ijhp.net/index.php/IJHP/article/view/169 <p>Strenuous physical exercise can trigger muscle damage causing an increase in <br />creatine kinase levels. One of the strategies to prevent muscle damage is to <br />consume antioxidants and anti-inflammatory. Jamu Kunyit Asam is known to <br />have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. The aim of this study was to <br />determine the effect of acutely giving Jamu Kunyit Asam on creatine kinase <br />levels after strenuous physical exercise. The research sample used 20 trained <br />males. The sample was divided into two groups (Experiment = 10; Placebo = <br />10). The pre-test was done by checking creatine kinase levels before engaging <br />in strenuous physical exercise. After doing strenuous physical exercise by <br />running on a treadmill with an intensity of 90-100% for 30 minutes, the <br />experimental group was given 250 ml of Jamu Kunyit Asam every day for 3 <br />days, while the control group was given a placebo drink. Creatine kinase <br />levels were measured immediately, 24 hours, 48 hours, and 72 hours after <br />strenuous physical exercise. The results showed that CK levels decreased <br />significantly 24 hours, 48 hours and 72 hours after strenuous physical <br />exercise in the Jamu Kunyit Asam group compared to the placebo group <br />(p&lt;0.05). The conclusion of this study is that giving Jamu Kunyit Asam <br />acutely after doing strenuous physical exercise can reduce creatine kinase <br />levels in trained male athletes. Acute Jamu Kunyit Asam supplementation in <br />this study can help reduce muscle damage due to strenuous physical exercise <br />through nutritional interventions.</p> Fajar Apollo Sinaga Rika Nailuvar Sinaga Mandike Ginting Copyright (c) 2022 Fajar Apollo Sinaga, Rika Nailuvar Sinaga, Mandike Ginting https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-11-28 2022-11-28 3 3 318 321 10.51601/ijhp.v3i3.169 Effectiveness Test of White Skin Extract Cream from Red Watermelon (Citrullus Lanatus) on Increasing Elasticity, Sebum and Hydration in White Mice (Mus Musculus) Skin https://ijhp.net/index.php/IJHP/article/view/173 <p><em>Skin moisturizing gel can provide a moisturizing effect on the skin. One of the natural ingredients that can be made into gel preparations is the white peel of watermelon (Citrullus Lanatus) because it contains a lot of citrulline, vitamin A, vitamin B2, vitamin B6, vitamin E, vitamin C, and protein, beta-carotene, lycopene, and water. The purpose of this study was to determine the activity of the ethanol extract of watermelon rind on increasing elasticity, sebum, and hydration in the skin of male white mice. This study used the Pretest-Posttest Control Group Design method. The stages of the research were sample collection, extraction, formulation of various concentrations of moisturizing gel preparations (0, 2.5%, 5%, and 10%). Tests were carried out on the skin of male mice for 4 weeks by measuring levels of elasticity, sebum, and hydration. &nbsp;The results of the phytochemical screening extracts contained flavonoids, saponins, steroids, triterpenoids, and glycosides. The evaluation results showed that all formulas met good preparation parameters and did not irritate the skin. The measurement results in the fourth week of each cream preparation group showed an increase in the levels of elasticity, sebum and hydration and differed significantly from the blank group (p &lt;0.05) and the highest increase occurred in cream with watermelon rind extract concentration 10 %. The results of this study indicate that the cream preparation of ethanol extract of watermelon rind can increase the levels of elasticity, sebum, and hydration of the skin.</em></p> Farida SR Simamora Janice Janice Widya Pasca Amir Copyright (c) 2022 Farida SR Simamora, Janice Janice, Widya Pasca Amir https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-12-04 2022-12-04 3 3 322 330 10.51601/ijhp.v3i3.173 Effectiveness Of Cream Formulation Of Carrot Seed Oil As Anti-Aging https://ijhp.net/index.php/IJHP/article/view/170 <p><em>Carrot (Daucus carota L.) is a vegetable plant that has many uses for public health services in the world. Fresh carrots contain water, protein, carbohydrates, fat, fiber, ash, anti-cancer nutrients, natural sugars (fructose, sucrose, dextrose, lactose, and maltose), pectin, glutathione, minerals (calcium, phosphorus, iron, potassium, sodium, magnesium, chromium), vitamins (beta carotene, B1, and C) and asparagine. The purpose of this study was to characterize simplicia and carrot seed oil extract, and to determine the antioxidant activity of carrot seed oil extract with formulations of concentrations of 3%, 6% and 9% seeds on the effectiveness of anti-aging Moisture, Evenness, Pore, Spot and Wrinkle. Carrot seed oil can be formulated in a homogeneous cream dosage form with an oil-in-water emulsion type, pH 6.7-7.7; does not cause skin irritation and is stable on storage for 90 days at room temperature. Carrot seed oil cream with a concentration of 9% showed the best anti-aging effectiveness by increasing water content, reducing skin hardness, shrinking pores, reducing blemishes and reducing wrinkles compared to other cream formulas.</em></p> Musnaini Musnaini Silvia Fransisca William Leslie Copyright (c) 2022 Musnaini Musnaini, Silvia Fransisca, William Leslie https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-12-04 2022-12-04 3 3 331 340 10.51601/ijhp.v3i3.170 Analysis of Clinical Pathway Implementation of Urinary Tract Stones at Royal Prima General Hospital Medan https://ijhp.net/index.php/IJHP/article/view/172 <p><em>In realizing individual health rights, health services are required to be able to place resources and organization efficiently with the advancement of medical world. Clinical pathway (CP) is a disease management tool used to reduce unnecessary variations in services to improve clinical outcomes and to control the use of resources (financial). Acute appendicitis is one of the most common causes of acute abdominal pain, with cases from 20-30% and increasing 32-72% at age of &lt;60 years. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct a study on the implementation of CP in the RSU. Royal Prima Medan. This study was conducted by using mix method with a case study design. Qualitative data were taken by interview and observation with case manager, medical committee, and nurses (n = 5) and quantitative data were taken with simple descriptive from acute appendicitis CP documentation in medical records and ICPAT (January - September 2020, n = 117). The level of completeness for CP was 100% and form filling was 85%. ICPAT dimension 1 contents and quality are good, dimension 2 contents still lack, and quality is moderate, dimension 3 contents is good and quality is moderate, dimension 4 content in moderate criteria and quality is good, dimension 5 contents still lack and quality is moderate and dimension 6, contents is good and quality is in moderate category. Where the obstacles are due to lack of understanding and time constraints. The development of urinary tract stones CP is not quite optimal; it is necessary to conduct periodic socialization and training to support understanding in filling out CP.</em></p> Subkhan Subkhan Tri Suci Sri Lestari Ramadhan Copyright (c) 2022 Subkhan Subkhan, Tri Suci, Sri Lestari Ramadhan https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-12-04 2022-12-04 3 3 341 352 10.51601/ijhp.v3i3.172 Test Of the Effectiveness of Tomato (Lycopersicum Esculentum Mill) Fruit Extract Cream on Increasing Elasticity, Sebum and Hydration in White Mouse Skin (Mus Musculus) https://ijhp.net/index.php/IJHP/article/view/171 <p><em>The skin is the outermost organ that acts as a protector from the external environment both in the ligaments, muscles, and internal organs from exposure to direct sunlight (ultraviolet light) and dehydration, also functions as a sense of taste and touch as well as a defense against pressure and infection. The imbalance between oxidants and antioxidants is influenced by external factors and internal factors that will affect wrinkling and aging of the skin. Tomatoes contain substances such as citrulline, vitamin A, vitamin B2, vitamin B6, vitamin E, vitamin C, and protein, beta-carotene, lycopene, and water. The purpose of this study was to determine the activity of tomato fruit ethanol extract to increase elasticity, sebum and hydration in the skin of male white mice. Cream preparations of tomato fruit ethanol extract were formulated with concentrations of 2.5%, 5%, and 10%. The test was carried out on the skin of male mice for 4 weeks by measuring the levels of elasticity, sebum and hydration. The results of phytochemical screening of extracts contained flavonoids, saponins, steroids, triterpenoids, and glycosides. The measurement results in the fourth week of each group of cream preparations showed an increase in the levels of elasticity, sebum and hydration and was significantly different from the blank group (p&lt;0.05) and the highest increase occurred in cream with 10% tomato extract concentration. The results of this study indicate that the preparation of tomato fruit ethanol extract cream can increase the elasticity, sebum and hydration levels of the skin.</em></p> Irnawasti Irnawasti Djamin Katarino Hendy Million Copyright (c) 2022 Irnawasti Irnawasti, Djamin Katarino, Hendy Million https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-12-04 2022-12-04 3 3 353 361 10.51601/ijhp.v3i3.171 Role Of Aromatherapy On Anxiety, Pain, Sleep Quality, And Hemodynamic Parasmetrs In Burn Patients; A Systematic Review Of Clinical Trials https://ijhp.net/index.php/IJHP/article/view/159 <p>Aromatherapy refers to the use of volatile oils or aromas extracted from plants for therapeutic purposes. The <br />present study was intended to systematically review the effects of aromatherapy with various essential oils in <br />burn patients. This review was according to the 06-PRISMA standards by searching in the English databases <br />such as Google Scholar, PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and ScienceDirect to find papers about the effects of <br />aromatherapy with herbal essential oils in burn patients with no time limitation. We used the keywords of <br />“lavender”, “rose”, “essential oil”, “aromatherapy”, “burn”, “anxiety”, “pain”. From 6630 papers, 10 <br />articles up to June 2022, met the inclusion criteria for analysis in the current systematic review. The most <br />studies were carried out on the effect of aromatherapy with rose essential oil (4, 40%), lavender essential oil (3, <br />30%), lavender along with rose essential oil (2, 20%), and lavender along with chamomile (1, 10%), <br />respectively. The findings of the current systematic review revealed that aromatherapy especially with lavender <br />and rose essential oil can improve the anxiety, pain, sleep quality, and hemodynamic parameters in burn <br />patients. Hence, due to the convenience of using this method and the lack of reports of any complications and <br />also the stability of hemodynamic status of patients in this method, it is recommended to use it for burn patients.</p> Hormoz Mahmoudvand Copyright (c) 2022 Hormoz Mahmoudvand https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-12-04 2022-12-04 3 3 362 366 10.51601/ijhp.v3i3.159 The Effect of Hydrotherapy and Progressive Muscle Relaxation (PMR) on Cortisol Levels in Primigravida Pregnant Women https://ijhp.net/index.php/IJHP/article/view/174 <p>This study aims to measure cortisol levels in pregnant women who have intervened with Hydrotherapy and Progressive Muscle Relaxation to reduce anxiety in pregnant women in facing labor. This type of research uses quantitative with a quasi-experimental design, and a pretest-posttest approach with a control group [10]. The sampling technique used was purposive sampling so that a total sample of 30 respondents was obtained. Analysis of the data collected in the study was processed analytically with the T-Paired test and the Independent Test. The results of this study showed that the hydrotherapy and Progressive Muscle Relaxation group with Paired T test results worth P Value 0.017 = 0.05, meaning that there is no effect of hydrotherapy and Progressive Muscle Relaxation on cortisol levels. Hydrotherapy and Progressive Muscle Relaxation therapy are effective in reducing anxiety levels and cortisol levels in primigravida pregnant women in the face of childbirth<em>.</em></p> <p><em>&nbsp;</em></p> Zulaeha Amdadi Sitti Mukarramah Mardiana Ahmad Copyright (c) 2022 Zulaeha Amdadi, Sitti Mukarramah, Mardiana Ahmad https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-12-04 2022-12-04 3 3 367 371 10.51601/ijhp.v3i3.174