The Effectiveness Of Providing Torbangun Leaf Extract (Coleus Ambonicus Lour) On Breast Milk Production For Postpartum Mothers At PMB Nalom Tangerang In 2022
The present study reports the first comprehensive study on the freshwater macroinvertebrates and its habitat
preferences in Bilah River, the largest riverin the Northern Sumatra. The riverside is characterized by the
presence of anthropogenic and industrial activities which may alter the macroinvertebrate assemblage and
biodiversity. Five months of investigation on 10 sampling stations from December 2016 to October 2017 was
conducted based on the river flow in Bilah River. Principal component analysis indicated a decrease in
trophic status from upstream to downstream of the river. A total of 27 taxa were recorded, with the most
abundant group were members of Odonata, Gastropoda, and Decapoda. The highest density of
macroinvertebrate was observed from station 1 (160 ind m-2), while the lowest density was observed from
station 9 (38.64 ind m-2
). Based on species distribution and similarity, two groups of habitats may be
distinctively recognized based on the Bray-curtis similarity coefficient. Group 1 consisted of station 1, 2, 3
and 4 while group 2 consisted of station 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10. Based on the diversity indices as ecological
parameters, the habitat condition in Bilah River is categorized from low to moderately polluted. Spatial
patterns in both environmental conditions affecting the macroinvertebrate assemblage was observed using
canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) revealed the preferences from each macroinvertebrate species
towards environmental conditions.
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